Our Philosophy

Festina lente
-make haste...slowly

Sunday, October 31, 2010

The Power of Horse

There's an old made-up story about my ancestors, the proto-Indo-Europeans, from the steppes of western Asia, near the Caucasus Mountains. It comes from the field of linguistics, which has gone to some length to reconstruct the mother language that spawned all the daughter languages from Portugal and Norway to Bombay. The expansion of this language, and subsequent cultural flowering that occured, or deflowering, depending on which end of the sword you're looking at, was driven by the domestication of the horse.

Can you imagine the first horse-borne riders appearing over the hills, raiding the small agrarian villages of eastern Europe? How terrified they must have been!

In fact we have a historical account of a very similar introduction of mounted soldiers, this time with guns and steel to boot, in the story of Pizzaro's rout of the Inca under their sun-god emporer Atahualpa. In the early 1530s, Francisco Pizzaro lead a group of Spanish conquistadors through the wilds of South America, to the stronghold of the Inca in modern-day Peru. I don't feel like looking up the exact numbers because the lack of parity is so incredible that it doesn't really matter, but I think it was about 100 infantry, and about 60 mounted cavalry, with swords, daggers, and very early, but very scary, guns. They overwhelmed and routed 80,000 Inca that day, and captured Atahualpa as well, whom they held hostage until they had extorted the collected gold wealth from the rest of the overthrown civilization. Then they killed him. Nice people. Not that what they did was unnatural, just seems barbaric to us moderns living under a very different energetics reality.

But back to my old made-up story. I took this from Dr. Jared Diamond's book, "The Third Chimpanzee," and think it says a lot about life at the point in history when our ancestral language was about to explode on horseback to conquer the globe.
First in Proto-Indo-European (PIE):

Owis Ekwoosque

Gwrreei owis, quesyo wlhnaa ne eest, ekwoons espeket, oinom ghe gwrrum woghom weghontm, oinomque megam bhorom, oinomque ghmmenm ooku bherontm.

Owis nu ekwomos ewewquet: "Keer aghnutoi moi ekwoons agontm nerm widntei."

Ekwoos tu ewewquont: "Kludhi, owei, keer ghe aghnutoi nsmei widntmos: neer, potis, owioom r wlhnaam sebhi gwhermom westrom qurnneuti. Neghi owioom wlhnaa est."

Tod kekluwoos owis agrom ebhuget.

Now in modern English, which is a direct descendent of the previous language:

Sheep and Horses

On hill, sheep that had no wool saw horses, one pulling heavy wagon, one carrying big load, and one carrying man quickly.

Sheep said to horses: "My heart pains me, seeing man driving horses."

Horses said: "Listen, sheep, our hearts pain us when we see: man, the master, makes wool of sheep into warm garment for himself. And sheep has no wool."

Having heard this, sheep fled into plain.

From these simple, but heavy, beginnings, horses went on to serve as vehicles, tractors, tow trucks, tanks - they were everything for the next 6000 years. The next shock of this magnitude would have to wait for the arrival of the Third Reich and their iron tanks with mounted cannons. But even that was small potatoes compared to the way horses revolutionized life on Earth.
Even our space program was affected by horses! (Another story for another time.)

The steppe peoples who gained control of the horsepower then thrust their horse-drawn cultural package into the bush of eastern Europe, where those new technologies mingled with a sedentary farming culture, retained the PIE language base, and evolved into a planet-defeating military-industrial package. The daughter tongues of PIE are spoken all over the world today, including all of the western hemisphere, far from PIE homelands, most of Africa, and even Australia and New Zealand, where the unique (and I think beautiful) forms of English they speak rest after their long and complicated linguistic journey. And it all started by catching a horse.
Not that the horse was the only blessing of geography to the region. Southwestern Asia is called "The Fertile Crescent" for a reason. Wouldn't know it to see it today. We're talking Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Israel - you know those lush green countries with all the oil. But the reason they're so run down and barren is because agriculture and pastoralism were born there, and now we can see the effects of 10,000 years of growing human populations, their insatiable resource grab, and what it does to the soil. Many of the world's common staples originated in the region - goats, sheep, chickens, wheat, barley, and chick peas for starters. Goat, in particular, is worth further consideration here. Much maligned in Christian cultures (and Cake tunes alike), I think goat will play a starring role in energy descent.

So what does all this about horses have to do with relocalization anyway? Good question. Who knows what role the horse will play, when, and where exactly. My guess would be that horses will become a lot more useful again, including integration with cutting edge intensive rotational grazing systems that rehabilitate instead of degrade land. Tilling the soil needs to fall out of vogue in general - tractor, horse, or otherwise - and I think that message will get out eventually, so perhaps the horse's usefulness will ultimately decline too (unless we get OK with eating them). Cultivation was part of expansion, working so well for that purpose that we got destructively addicted to it, but our understanding of topsoil is much more complete today, and annual tillage needs to stop in an energy descent context. Maybe, like cultivation, the horse was an expansionary idea for the most part. Who knows. I don't think contraction will work like expansion at all, so hard to say. I just think it's a lot easier to form a coherent idea of where we might be headed if we possess a broader understanding of where we came from. That and it's just fascinating to me.

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Slaves to the Family

We humans consider our control of the planet to be so self-evident that we've never really given it another thought. I mean, we have by far the greatest impact on the overall environment, make the longest lasting monuments to our presence, and utilize every form of energy Earth has to offer. But in sheer acreage colonized, we get our butts handed to us. And not only handed to us, but driven relentlessly to assure the dominance of our real masters.

Admit it, we're slaves. Slaves to the family. The plant family Poaceae that is, the grasses. Think about it. What are the primary obstacles to the grass family's colonization of Earth? Forests? Steep slopes? Water? All of which we gladly bust our humps to help grass overcome. We cut down more forests and plant more cereal grasses every year. We terrace steep mountainsides to make grasses more comfortable. And we bring water to help them grow. Think about how much of Earth's land surface is covered in wheat, rice, corn, barley, oats, sorghum, millet - you name it, if there's a lot of it around it's probably a grass. Bamboo, the most useful plant on Earth, with more than 1500 recorded uses, is a grass. Hell, we even renamed our favorite flowering plant "grass," so as not to anger our masters.

My friend, Mark, committing treason against his master, contemplating how to exchange some of his grass for more useful...I mean stupid flowering...crops. Sorry.

Next, a Bit About Lawns

Ever consider just how much energy it takes to maintain a lawn? Nature maintains grasslands in 3 ways: 1) regular fire, 2) lack of water, 3) grazing pressure from hooved animals. Now your average suburban lawn owner is not terribly likely to maintain his prized monoculture with a regular burn regime. Which is probably for the best; I don't think the neighbors would be very keen on that. He's also just as unlikely to graze ungulates across the front yard, despite the obvious, and free, benefit of manure to fertilize, and pointed hooves to aerate, his plot. And he damn sure isn't letting his lawn dry out to avoid pulling those pesky maple seedlings.

But those maple seedlings aren't just there to annoy landscapers. That's nature's way of proceeding with ecosystem succession, and without the free environmental services Mother Nature offers for grassland maintenance, that considerable energy falls on the shoulders of the landscaper. Without fossil fuels the sheer comic folly of a lawn would come into focus pretty quickly, but with that magnificent energy subsidy, we humbly bow to our lords, and mow, water, fertilize, and remove competition. Anything else, your grace?

In ecological terms lawnscapes fall under one of two main categories: prairie or savannah. The archetypical prairie would look like an expanse of grass, perhaps bordered by a few flower beds. The garden-variety savannah would include a few trees. Probably not the most useful trees though, as that red maple provides shade in summer, lovely foliage in the fall, and some wildlife habitat, but no real contribution to self-reliance for the humans in the landscape. One can have their tree and eat it too.

Without those 3 ecosystem pressures I mentioned above, however, the energy required to maintain a prairie or savannah in the suburbs is immense. Nature's fecundity is relentless, pushing lawns to become pioneer shrublands, followed by primary forest, and eventually maturing into whatever the dominant local forested system might be. The lawnkeeper has to stop her. And stop her. And stop her again. Every time we mow, pull, and spray for weeds, we are in essence setting back the successional clock. And every time, like clockwork, Nature responds by sending out her army of maples, privet, dandelions, chicory, plantain, coinwort, and myriad others, bent on fixing the problem we've created. The imbalance in the system.

In the United States alone, our graminoid masters have hoodwinked us into the conversion of 50,000 square miles of (originally) old-growth forest into grassy landscapes. Sargeant St. Augustine, Captain Centipede, First Leiutenant Fescue, and more recently the Zoysia Czar, have whipped us and cajoled us into prostrate servitude. Literally. How many suburbanites can you find on their knees every weekend, wrenching dandelions out by their enormous (and terrifically useful) taproots, so that King Lawn can prosper? When you awaken from the Poacic Matrix, the vista will make you nauseous. For what do these lawns have to offer besides a popular cultural asthetic? There's no dog food out there, or cat food, or goldfish food, and certainly nothing a human could eat. We fill our homes with animals that require energy to maintain, including us, then turn right around and waste the very gift of land that could be used to maintain them.

Our masters have our complete attention. Their conquest of planet Earth is nearing completion. Maybe as individuals we can't fight effectively against the banks and corporations that seem to have a free pass to rape and destroy, but we can do something about the lawn out front. We can turn 50,000 square miles of toxic wasteland into productive horticultural space, and in the process take a significant burden off of our dying farmland. The header photo of my blog is a shot of my front yard in Spokane, WA, USA, 2009. We ate like royalty that summer, and paid for chiropractic care with produce. Now I'm not sure just how many layers of biosphere-destroying formal economy that removed from my family's footprint, but it was the most delicious civil disobedience I've ever engaged in!

Monday, October 11, 2010

The Love of Money

Or the trading of human quality for human quantity.

A paper monetary note - US dollar, Japanese yen, German deutschemark - is, for all practical purposes, a unit of energy. And not just ONE unit of energy either, but a brand new unit of energy every time it changes hands. Doesn't matter much what it's traded for, a unit of energy is expended every time it moves. Unless you put that dollar under the mattress and sleep on it, that is. Then it basically ceases to exist.

But that's not what the majority of first-world humans do, is it? We buy groceries, go to concerts, and invest in big tobacco companies. Or maybe in so-called "green" or "socially responsible" investment vehicles, if we lean that way. Doesn't pencil out any differently though. A dollar spent in the economic machine is still a dollar. Even in a venture as seemingly innocent as the Nature Conservancy, where dollars are traded for valuable natural real estate, more money donated translates into more people working on that conservation. More plane flights hither and yon. More mortgages. More investment firms to handle the retirement funds for those employees. More dinners out. And the formal economy keeps on spinning, and by "spinning" I mean destroying the planet.

What about Heifer International? I used to subscribe to their "good works". Their business model revolves around taking first world donations to provide livestock and training to the "unfortunate" third-world poor. But those poor people are alive, and have been for millenia, quietly living sustainably, not reproducing more than they could feed. They were hunter-gatherers, or horticulturalists, living very local, low-impact lives. Now they are aspiring agriculturalists, and entrepreneurs. Ideas based on expansion of market share, and an "ethic" of size equaling self-worth. You were nothing until we gave you that water buffalo, and you'll be nothing again if you don't expand your holdings with it.

But how can 7 billion people expand their holdings? How can we all be agriculturalists, steadily clearing virgin land to convert into more humans? (Literal and metaphorical virgin land.) The simplest answer is that we can't. The physical world has physical limits. It's that easy. Modern industrial humans don't like the idea of limits. Not something we've ever had to tolerate much of. Up until now. I don't have much else to say on the matter beyond that we have to stop. Just stop moving, stop doing, stop consuming. I'm only aware of a couple of people who travel extensively yet manage to live carbon negative lives. And no, Al Gore is not one of them. Could be, but I don't know that for sure.

OK, so what about a kind of green tech stability? Can't we just replace our conventional systems with lower-energy alternatives? Of course we could! If that was what we were doing. But does it really make sense that an alternative power system for every individual property in the developed world would be cheaper energetically than a regional power grid? Should we just overlook that solar panels require the mining of rare earth elements like Indium and Hafnium? Metals that are near their peak supplies already? They are called rare earth elements for a reason. How exactly will we create a solar revolution when we've barely begun the task and we're already running low on the required materials? Same for wind. You're just not getting the same bang for the energetic buck that you get out of oil and coal, and that is a physical limit that matters.

Now Tripp, are you saying that you endorse oil and coal use for power production? Yep. Until we wrap our heads around the idea that the only way to use less energy is to actually use less energy! The point is, it's the behavioral modification that matters, not the technological. The primary fallacy of the supposed "green tech" movement is the severe disconnect from reality embedded in the idea that we can keep doing what we're doing after a brief equipment change. That is, as soon as we can get all those old incandescent bulbs switched out for CFLs, or better yet, LEDs, and get everybody recycling their trash, we'll be able to continue this grand expansionary experiment unabated. Never mind the mercury in the CFLs that no one recycles, or the production costs of these technologies - the R&D, the new or retrofitted factories and supply chains, the mining, and the billion dollar chemistry labs, not to mention the average everyday lives of the people involved, buying their groceries, attending their concerts, and investing in their big tobacco companies. Or Green Mountain Coffee, or whatever, doesn't matter.

It all requires energy. The only difference is who is benefitting from that spent energy, that is, which of the 2 aristocratic parties in this country can gain the upper hand by acquiring slightly more energy than the other. The people who think alt energy is the way of the future, and thus vote for Democrats to bring that to fruition, are just as culpable for destroying Earth as the Republicans who want things to continue like they are. Maybe even more so. I was recently sent an article about an off-grid grass-based agricultural operation, which at first glance made me happy. After all, grass-fed beef is without a doubt the lowest input meat available, and done properly can even sequester atmospheric carbon. But the article went on to say that this ranch had just installed 50 kW of solar capacity at a cost of $320,000, that will supply over 1/3 of the power for their abbatoir! A whole one third! Just for the abbatoir! And they were bragging about it! I don't care what "they" say about recovery time on a solar investment, there's no such thing. Not when one does a full environmental accounting anyway.

Nothing will change until WE change. There's no such thing as free energy, because even if you found it, the additional humans it would create still need to be fed, clothed, and housed, at a bare minimum, and increasingly they "require" a computer and ISP, a cell phone, a car, ....

The Green Tech revolution is nothing of the sort. It's business as usual in a pretty green wrapper. The only chance we have of persisting on planet Earth lies in our ability to drop our hubris a notch or three, and start asking how, rather than finding a better way to accomplish a given task, how we can manage to get by without bothering to accomplish that task at all.
That's where our biggest trouble lies. The idea of stopping, slowing down, or avoiding doing a task is tantamount to laziness in the eyes of the growth culture. Prosperity comes from hard work, right? Wrong. OK, maybe in the shortest of terms, but ultimately, prosperity comes from sustainability. Anything else is just selfish, no matter how noble the motive. What good does it do to acquire the wealth of the planet and leave no trees for the children? Will that stack of paper fed notes taste good? Do they burn slow and long for warmth in winter? Would it even matter if there is no rain to water food crops following a deforestation threshold?

We have to sort out our priorities, and we have to do it now. This is the only problem before us. It's the biggest problem ever faced by Homo sapiens, and it will be THE defining moment for all of humanity. Doesn't matter what our parents and grandparents tell us is right, or noble, or responsible. Their experience was nothing like our experience.

Ever heard of the "Punctuated Equilibrium Theory"? Makes a lot of sense to me. Basically, it suggests that there are long periods of slow steady building of resources and infrastructure, followed by very short, rapid bursts of consumption. Repeat cycle ad infinitum. In a human context, the groundwork was laid for our parents and grandparents by their predecessors - the telephone system, the interstate highway system, social safety nets, intellectual property laws, and so on - and then they burst out to exceptional material wealth by utilizing these resources to their fullest potential. But in the process of creating massive paper wealth they consumed the REAL capital reserves - the forests, the freshwater, the soil's fertility- and now the long slow rebuilding process must begin anew. That is our next task.

But before the hair on the back of your neck stands up, or your face turns red, or even one "How dare you!" is uttered, let me quickly add that what we've done for the past 70 years, and in the larger sense the past 10,000 years, is completely natural. I don't think for one second that my grandparents intended to leave me and my cohorts destitute ecologically. We did what any biological population in our shoes would have done. The energy was there, it was easy, and we expanded to take advantage of it. That's how natural populations work! But the dark side of being a regular old part of nature is that we face the same consequences that, say, yeast in a barrel of grape juice face. Once the available energy in the system is used up the population crashes. What's worse is that in a population that arranges its affairs around growth specifically, even borrowing from future growth that may or may not exist, that crash will come even sooner. As soon as the growth phase is over that is. So unless there really is some benevolent deity that really does think our activities are worth rewarding, a population keyhole event is precisely what we can expect following peak global energy.

How long we have is anyone's guess, but I think the past 3 years have been the opening act of more or less permanent energy descent and economic contraction. Whether or not I'm right about that is somewhat irrelevant, because it will come sooner or later. By predicting it in the near term I'm actually tossing out a best case scenario. As soon as we begin to descend from the great energy mountain the biosphere begins to recover. (Good news, I'm seeing that happen already in many ways.) Which is good news for all biology, including humans. Hard to see sometimes, through the cloud of paper money blurring our vision from the peak, but the sooner this stolen season at the summit ends the sooner we recover our humanity.

The love of money is not the root of all evil. Money itself is. We're enamored by it, we always want more, and why wouldn't we! Money lets us travel, and eat better, buy land, and help our friends and family. For a while. Then it's just paper again. And the view from the ash pile will be surprisingly bleak I'm afraid. Seven billion or so humans surrounded by clear-cuts, impoverished farmland, toxic water, and a whole lot of disbelief.

Sunday, October 10, 2010

A Spoken Pattern Language

I never studied Latin formally, but like any biologist I have a fair command of the language through scientific names and terminology, and their meanings. "Leucocephalus" means white head; "polypodium" means many feet, or bases - roots in a lot of cases. One simply picks the language up as they study.

What I'm about to propose walks a similar line.

Some sharp friends of mine and I have been talking about what to expect from energy descent. Specifically, how societies will reorganize themselves along shorter, lower energy food chains, supply lines, and loyalties. And we mostly agree that the procession from band to tribe, tribe to chiefdom, and chiefdom to state, will probably just reverse. But along with that realization comes the unavoidable prospect of a return to racism and xenophobia, traits that modern people mostly consider ugly, and gladly left behind. That was our ancestral condition though. No one travelled beyond neighboring tribal lands, if even that far, and tribal societies were extremely intolerant of outsiders. As Dr. Jared Diamond puts it, why would they be on our land except to introduce foreign diseases, rape our women, and reconnoiter our territory for future raids? I think it's safe to say that very few people desire a future like this.

But cultural homegeneity, including racial/ethnic/gender/religious amalgamations, and widespread common language, are anomolies of a mobile high-energy society. Anomolies that most often require oppression in one form or another, if not bloodshed, or even outright genocide. Call it "manifest destiny" or "divine providence," whatever you will, but in the end it's nothing more than steamrolling your neighbors because you think you are better. Not that it's unnatural. All of Nature works that way, but following peak global energy things are changing, and they deserve to be considered.

So instead of a wholesale return to racial and linguistic tribal organization, what might be expected is a realignment along ideological lines. As we begin the descent, I could see Southern Baptists forming Southern Baptist communities, motorsports enthusiasts in motorsport enthusiast enclaves, and permaculturalists in their ecovillages, regardless of race or national origin. Doesn't have to be very big either. Just a neighborhood might do. Foreign immigrants, as well as members of some religious sects, in the United States have been doing this for centuries. It's the majority mixture that's the odd part.

While a little hybrid vigor probably does a species good, if it's unsustainable it's unsustainable, so back to more local organization we go. If you look, you can already see this happening, even in the mighty U.S. The Libertarians were an offshoot of the GOP, now the Tea Party, Greens from Democrats, etc. The balkanization of our world is well underway already, and a declining annual energy budget will only accelerate the process. Doesn't really matter how much we oppose it.

As a permaculturalist, I see myself as somewhat ahead of the curve in relation to energy descent. No doubt there will be people reading this post who don't even know what I'm talking about, or think I'm a loon for even bringing up such dark tidings. But permaculture, in its loosest definition, really is the energy descent phase of human history itself. What one calls it is a secondary matter, as David Holmgren might point out. It is a linking science, a toolbox for navigating changing energetic realities. It's basically a set of ethics and principles, based on the Laws of Nature, that inform our decision-making processes for the brand new situation of declining energy. We've never dealt with this before, so the guidelines are still evolving, and permaculture offers the most realistic, and even hopeful, philosophy I've ever seen.

So not to belabor the point, if permaculture is the next phase of human experience it makes sense that we might attempt to adopt a unifying language for discussion of the matter. But which one to adopt? English is one of the most widespread languages on planet Earth today; it's the language of business one might say. But from a linguistics perspective, English is not a language of diplomacy. It's great for agriculture, and expansion, and imperialism, but not for contraction. There are many causes for why history has played out the way it has, and a society's language often reflects its own history. As natural as the progression of English has been through the centuries, it is a bad choice for what lies ahead.

That said, I'm not English-bashing per se, nor am I endorsing any other extant language, but rather, offering another extinct language, like Latin, for permacultural communication. Only this time it's our real mother tongue. Not just like Latin is for the Italic languages today - Italian, French, Spanish, and Portuguese, but THE mother language for half of the world's population. I'm talking about Proto-Indo-European. PIE for short. It's a linguistics extrapolation, inferred from extensive knowledge of all of its daughter languages, from Norway to Bombay.

One might suggest that Latin is too Eurocentric, or too theocentric even, arising in the Roman Catholic stronghold. Or that English is too imperialistic or agitating for many. But, in the same way that permaculture is a tidal shift from large-scale mono-cropping agriculture and associated attitudes, toward local, integrated, horticultural systems and ways of being, the PIE language transports us back to a pre-imperialistic era. An era of, well, horticulture. Perhaps it would be a stretch to call it a language of peace, but if nothing else, most of us should find it accessible on a cellular level, probably far more so than Latin. Honestly, what percentage of the existing permaculture community descends from the Indo-European lineage? Ninety percent? More?

It's the imperialistic Indo-European cultural family that needs permaculture, because we are the people who expanded to a highly unstable position energetically. We are the ones who invented permaculture because we are the ones with the need for it. And if we're consciously moving toward horticulture, it might behoove us to adopt a common horticultural language. At least while we can communicate over long distances. And even after that we would probably incorporate much of it into our locally-developing daughter languages. I have a feeling that, in the same way English is appropriate for expansion, PIE might foster a more respectful attitude toward Nature in its speakers. Because it was the language of a more respectful era.

I'm starting at zero on this one like most of you. I have no loyalty to PIE, nor do I know more than a few words. But this is a pattern language I could embrace, and learn actively, because like everything else about my permacultural experience, it's been highly worth the effort. It's not as pompous as learning Latin, nor is it as queer as adopting Elvish, and who knows, it might have a real impact on what we are doing.

At this point I'm all ears for anyone who might want to refine this idea.

Thanks for your time,

Tripp Tibbetts

I was dreaming when I wrote this, forgive me if it goes astray...

In my dream I fell asleep in the orchard and had a chat with god. And I asked god why there was so much hatred toward the purple sticky punch.

And god said, "Yeah, I put cannabis on the planet exclusively for the enjoyment of humans (and maybe a few other animals that tag along with you guys, like rats, they like it too), but my followers have managed to muck up just about everything I did for their happiness."

"Like boobs?" I asked.

"Exactly. They claim they ate an apple and became "enlightened" about their nudity, or at least about female nudity, and henceforth adopted modesty as a blanket policy! Of course you're a sharp fellow, Tripp, you see the cascade of misery that followed, from the resource acquisition to make trousers and shoes, to the pain of bras and girdles, to the sweat shop labor now forced upon so-called "lesser" peoples, all the way to the embarrassment of the Oregon Ducks rotating game day wardrobe."

"Indeed, sir, they are the laughing stock of the BCS, with their diamond plated shoulder pads. But what about the apple itself? Another demonized plant?! What have they got against plants?? There are plenty of real enemies to be dealt with."

"Oh yeah, "the tree of knowledge" they call it. Tree of retardation is more like it. It's an apple for jeebus sake. [That was my son's real name, btw, jeebus, in lower case like e. e. cummings, not Hey-Zeus, like some wetback (sic)]. I thought the apple was a real homerun."

"Why wouldn't you!" I exclaimed.

"Well, Tripp, I've got to run. Still lots of misrepresentations on my behalf to clear up. You understand."

"I do, sir. Thank you for your time."

"Hey, son. I'm glad you permaculturalists are doing what you're doing. It's about time someone listened. And feel free to cheef all you want."

"Thank you, sir. I'd tell the church that you said so, but you know how that always ends up."

"I sure do. Oh, and one more thing, tell your buddy 8M, over at Jim Kunstler's blog, to ditch that fascist Darth Vader view of the future of his. I sent him back in time with the knowledge he has specifically so that he would stop that from happening, not to promote it. Damn."